The Pulpit Commentary

Romans 16:1-20 (Romans 16:1-20)

K. Commendation of Phoebe, and salutations to Christians at Rome.

- The Pulpit Commentary

Romans 16:1-2 (Romans 16:1-2)

I commend unto you Phoebe our sister ( i.e. fellow-Christian), who is a servant of the Church that is in Cenchrea: that ye receive her in the Lord, worthily of the saints, and assist her ( παραστῆτε , literally, stand by her ) in whatsoever business she hath need of you: for she too hath been a succourer ( προστάτις , corresponding to παραστῆτε ) of many, and of mine own self. This Phoebe was probably the bearer of the Epistle. She appears to have had business, perhaps of a legal kind, that took her to Rome; and St. Paul took advantage of her going to send the letter by her, desiring also to enlist the aid of her fellow-Christians at Rome in furtherance of her business, whatever it might be. Her having business at Rome, and her having been "a succourer of many," suggests the idea of her being a lady of means. Her designation as διάκονος of the Church at Cenchrea probably implies that she held an office there corresponding to that of deaconess, though there is no reason to suppose the distinguishing term διακόνισσα to have been as yet in use. Her function, and that of others (as perhaps of Tryphena and Tryphosa, mentioned in Romans 16:12 as "labouring much in the Lord"), might be to minister to the sick and poor, and to fulfil such charitable offices as women could best discharge. Cf. 1 Timothy 3:11 , where γυναῖκας , mentioned in the midst of directions as to the qualifications of men for the office of deacons, probably denotes women who fulfilled similar duties. Cf. also Pliny's celebrated letter to Trajan, in which he says that he had extorted information as to the doings of Christians, "ex duabus ancillis, quae ministrae dicebantur." The Latin ministra answers exactly to the Greek διάκονος . Cenchrea was the port of Corinth on the Saronic Gulf; and it appears from this passage that there was a Church or congregation there, as well as one or more in Corinth itself. It is an interesting conjecture that St. Paul, in speaking of Phoebe having been a succourer of himself as well as of others, may refer to an illness of his own at Cenchrea, during which she had ministered to him, and that his shaving his head at Cenchrea because he had a vow ( Acts 18:18 ) may have been during, or on his recovery from, that illness.

- The Pulpit Commentary

Romans 16:1-2 (Romans 16:1-2)

A ministering woman.

Although we know of Phoebe no more than is recorded here, we know enough to feel an interest in her; for she was a friend and helper of the Apostle Paul, and she was probably the bearer of this Epistle to the Roman Church. Observe—

I. THE COMMENDATION OF PHOEBE , BY PAUL , TO THE CHRISTIANS OF ROME . She is described in this passage by three several designations, which could not but favourably introduce her to the notice and regard of the Christian community in the great metropolis of the world.

1. She is described as "a sister. " Christianity taught mankind that a true relationship might exist amongst those widely sundered by time and space, and widely severed by education and social position. The followers of Jesus learned to regard one another as brothers and sisters and the great spiritual family, of which God is the Father and Christ the elder Brother and Savior. Coming from afar, even in the vast and populous city of Rome, this, godly matron would and brethren in Christ, would be recognized as a sister.

2. 'A servant of the Church at Cenchrea." Literally, a deacon, or deaconess. This shows us how, from the beginning of Christianity, woman's position was recogmzed and honoured. Christ has taught humanity the dignity of service; and as when on earth he accepted the ministrations of devout and attached women, so now he delights in their labours and self-sacrifice in his cause on earth.

3. The form of her service is mentioned; she was "a succourer of many." Probably a matron of means and social consideration, she had, and used, the opportunity to show kindness to her kindred in the faith, and to others in necessity. She may have shown hospitality to Christian ministers, have visited and relieved the sick poor, have rescued the fallen and neglected. "Of myself also," says the apostle, gratefully and gracefully acknowledging gentle and kindly ministrations, Possibly he had been sick at Cenchrea, upon the occasion when he is recorded to have made a vow, and Phoebe may have entertained and nursed him.

II. THE REQUEST MADE BY PAUL TO THE ROMANS ON HER BEHALF .

1. The footing is described upon which they were enjoined to receive her—"in the Lord," i.e. in the Lord's Name, and for the Lord's sake. This was the light in which Jesus himself had taught his disciples to regard one another. In receiving any in Christ's Name, we receive Christ himself. The Romans were to consider that the Divine Lord did, in a sense, in the person of his faithful disciples, come amongst them.

2. The law of treatment is laid down—"as saints." That is to say, it was to be berne in mind, in their social and religious intercourse, that they were not as the heathen around, that they were a select and consecrated people. Going into this great sinful city, this Cenchrean matron might look for treatment and conversation becoming to saints; she might expect religious privileges, and something more than courtesy—even Christian cordiality and kindness.

3. Such being the sentiments enjoined, it is interesting to see that Paul expected such feelings to prompt to corresponding action. The Roman Christians are desired to assist Phoebe in her business. Whether this was domestic, commercial, or legal, we do not know. In any case, she might well be grateful for an introduction which would secure for her the countenance, counsel, sympathy, and aid of men of wisdom and experience, of character and position. Scripture constantly warns us against allowing good feeling to pass away without leading to suitable expression in action. It is a lesson which even religious and well-meaning people need to have inculcated and repeated.

APPLICATION .

1. Let Christian communities aim at realizing the fellowship which such passages as this imply and commend.

2. Let Christian women seek, according to their station, opportunity, and ability, to live as servants of Christ and of Christ's Church.

3. Let all Christian people hold in honour those godly women who devote themselves to the succouring of the needy, the neglected, and the sinful

- The Pulpit Commentary

Romans 16:1 (Romans 16:1)

"Phoebe our sister:" a sermon to young women.

The Rev. W. S. Swanson, speaking some time ago at Manchester, showed that the religions of the East were powerless to regenerate the heart and purify the life, and that, however excellent some of them may appear in theory, they utterly failed in practice. Among other things he said, "I ask what adaptation have we found in these religions to meet the wants, to heal the wounds of woman, and to give her her proper and rightful position? What have they done to free her from the oppression that imprisons, degrades, and brutalizes her? What has 'the light of Asia' done to brighten her lot? What ray of comfort have these religions shed into the shambles where she is bought and sold? What have they done to sweeten and purify life for her? Why! her place in the so-called paradises of some of them, in the way in which it is painted, only burns the brand of shame more deeply on her brow." Christianity alone has given woman her rightful place. Woman occupies an honourable position in the Bible, and every wise provision is made for her, especially for the widow in her helplessness and loneliness. In the Old Testament we have such noble women as Deborah and Hannah, Ruth and Esther. In the New Testament we have Mary the mother of our Saviour, Mary of Bethany, Lydia, Dorcas, and many others. Women occupied an important place in the early Christian Church. At Philippi, for example, when St. Paul went to the place "where prayer was wont to be made," he found that little prayer-meeting entirely composed of women. In the Epistles of St. Paul we find him sending many messages to the Christian women of various Churches, and commending many of them for their faithfulness and devotion to the cause of Christ. Among those whom he thus mentions is Phoebe. We know nothing of Phoebe's history beyond what is stated here, and the additional fact mentioned in a note at the end of this Epistle that she was the bearer of this letter to the Christians at Rome.

I. PHOEBE WAS A SERVANT . It would appear that she was a lady of some means. She devoted her means and her time to assisting the poor and the helpless. She had been "a succourer of many" (verse 2). But whatever position she occupied, she bears the name of servant. Now, there is nothing to be ashamed of in the name of servant. Every one who is worth anything is a servant in some sense. The less service any one renders, the more useless he or she is in the world. The sovereign upon the throne, the judges and magistrates, lawyers, medical men, men of business, ministers of the gospel, all are the servants of others. Be faithful in your service. The maxim of many in our time seems to be to take all the pay they can and render as little service as possible. That is not honest. Nor is it honest to work only when the eyes of your employer are upon you. "Servants, be obedient to your masters according to the flesh, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, as unto Christ; not with eye-service, as men-pleasers; but as the servants of Christ, doing the will of God from the heart; with good will doing service, as to the Lord and not to men." Be trustworthy. Regard what belongs to your master or your mistress with as much care as if it were your own. If your employer's children are committed to your care, how scrupulous you should be regarding them! Never let them hear from your lips a profane or evil word. If you are teaching them, seek to communicate to their youthful minds all the good principles that you can. Your work may be a quiet work, but if it is done faithfully it is a lasting work. You may not receive much notice or much thanks from your employer, but he that seeth in secret himself shall reward you openly.

II. PHOEBE WAS A SERVANT OF GOD . That was the secret of her useful and honoured life. It is the highest thing that could be said of any one. Employers are beginning to find out that God-fearing men and God-fearing women are not the worst servants.

1. A servant of God will not be the servant of this world. Many young ladies who call themselves Christians seem to spend their life altogether in the service of selfish pleasure and worldly amusement.

2. A servant of God will not, keep the company of the godless. There is no subject on which young women in our towns and cities need to be more plainly warned than the choice of their companions of both sexes. How many happy and promising young lives have been blighted, how many hearts have been broken, by foolish companionships and too hasty intimacy! The casual knowledge obtained of any one at an evening party or a pleasure excursion is no basis on which to form an engagement on which depends the happiness of a lifetime.

"Thrice blest whose lives are faithful prayers,

Whose loves in higher love endure.

What souls possess themselves so pure?

Or is there blessedness like theirs?"

III. PHOEBE WAS A SERVANT OF THE CHURCH . That is to say, she was a helper of God's people. She was a helper in Christian work. There are many young women whose lives are absolutely wasted, who are utterly wretched and miserable, for want of something to do. How many forms of useful service there are in which a young woman may engage I She may teach in the Sunday school; visit the aged and the sick, and minister unto them in spiritual things, and perhaps also to their bodily comfort and relief; she may invite the careless to the house of God. And a woman's influence is often powerful for good where even a Christian man would utterly fail to reach the hardened heart.—C.H.I.

- The Pulpit Commentary

Romans 16:1-19 (Romans 16:1-19)

Words of counsel for a Christian Church.

The practical exhortations given in most of these closing chapters of this Epistle have reference mainly to the duties of individual Christians. The exhortations of this last chapter refer specially to the duty of the local Church in its corporate capacity.

I. ATTENTION TO STRANGERS . Consideration for strangers was constantly impressed upon the Jewish people in ancient times. "Oppress not the stranger" ( Exodus 22:21 ; Exodus 23:1-33 . 9, etc.); "The stranger that dwelleth among you shall be unto you as one born among you, and thou shalt love him as thyself" (Le 19:34). And Malachi denounces judgments upon those "that turn aside the stranger from his right" ( Malachi 3:5 ). So here Paul enjoins it upon the Church at Rome. "I commend unto you Phoebe our sister … that ye receive her in the Lord, as becometh saints, and that ye assist her in whatsoever business she hath need of you" (verses 1, 2). There is much need for such an exhortation in the Christian Churches of today. Strangers go in and out of our Churches unnoticed and uncared for. False modesty or excessive etiquette prevents the members of the Church from speaking to them. Consider the possible effects of such neglect. A young man, far from home, exposed to many temptations and godless surroundings, enters a church. No one speaks to him. He drifts away. He knows that in the drinking-saloon, perhaps, he will find a welcome and a friendly shake of the hand. "The children of this world are wiser in their generation than the children of light." Why should not Christians be as anxious to welcome the stranger to the house of God as the godless are to welcome him to their haunts of giddy pleasure and sin? Another, hovering on the verge of unbelief, unsettled by the silly popular literature of our day, enters a Christian church. He sees an element of unreality and of selfishness strongly marked. He too drifts away. Or some stranger enters a Christian church who is in trouble or in perplexity, and to whom a word of sympathy or guidance would be welcome. But from the self-absorbed and stand-off Christians no encouragement is received. Can we wonder that such persons are alienated from the Church, are often alienated from Christ? And what does Christ think of all this? Listen to his words on the great day: "I was a stranger, and ye took me not in." And when those whom he shall thus address shall say, "Lord, when saw we thee a stranger, and took thee not in?" then shall he answer them, "Inasmuch as ye did it not to one of the least of these my brethren, ye did it not to me." Attention shown to the stranger is regarded by the Saviour as attention shown to himself. Such attention "becometh saints" (verse 2). But however the Church may treat strangers, they need not remain strangers to Christ. He has a word and a welcome for all.

II. ATTENTION TO ONE ANOTHER . While we are to think of strangers we must not forget our own brethren.

"We have careful thought for the stranger,

And smiles for the sometime guest;

But oft for our own

The bitter tone,

Though we love our own the best."

St. Paul here exhorts that they should greet one another as brethren. "Salute one another with an holy kiss" (verse 16)—the customary mode of salutation at the time. Is not this exhortation also—namely, of friendliness and brotherly kindness among Christians—much needed in the Christian Church of today? How many professing Christians pass in and out of the same church, sit down at the same communion-table, and never exchange greetings with one another! Alas! after centuries of Christianity, we are but beginners in the school of Christ! Our profession of friendship for Christ is not worth much if we are not willing to make friends of his brethren. But it may be said, "We cannot ignore social differences. How am I to recognize in the street as a friend, how am I to shake hands with, one of lower social position?" Ah, yes! pride is the difficulty. Missionaries tell us that caste in Eastern countries is one of the great hindrances to the spread of the gospel. It is the same at home. There is caste in Christian nations as well as in heathen lands. Yet it ought not to be so. Nowhere were such differences more marked than at Rome. There were the well-defined and sharply marked classes of patricians and plebeians. Yet Paul ignores them. Many of the persons whom he mentions by name in his salutations in this chapter were slaves. Yet they also were to be included in the attention of the other members of the Church. Some one may say, "This is quite revolutionary. It would upset all our social arrangements." Perhaps so. And Christianity must make greater revolutions yet in the character and habits of professing Christians if it is to win the world for Christ. More attention and kindness should be shown by one Christian to another than is commonly the case.

III. AVOIDANCE OF THE QUARRELSOME . "Now I beseech you, brethren, mark them who cause divisions and offences contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned; and avoid them" (verse 17). And then he describes the character and motives of the quarrelsome. "For they that are such serve not our Lord Jesus Christ, but their own belly" (verse 18). That is to say, those who are quarrelsome in disposition are those who put their own ideas, their own comfort, their own selfish desires or feelings, in the forefront. Interfere with their plans, thwart their ambition, fail to respect their pride, and they are ready to take offence. The duty of the Christian is to avoid such persons. Such is the advice St. Paul gives here. Such advice he gave elsewhere. Speaking in his letter to Timothy of disputatious persons, he says, "From such withdraw thyself" ( 1 Timothy 6:5 ). Writing to the Thessalonias, he says, "Now we command you, brethren, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye withdraw yourselves from every brother that walketh disorderly" ( 2 Thessalonians 3:6 ). The reason of this is obvious. If quarrelsome persons are left to themselves, they will soon have nobody to quarrel with. It is an old saying that it takes two to make a quarrel. It might be added that it takes three to keep it up. A third party often fans the flame. If the Christian is brought into contact with quarrels at all, it should only be as a reconciler. "It is an honour to a man to cease from strife;" "Blessed are the peace- makers: for they shall be called the children of God"—C.H.I.

- The Pulpit Commentary

Romans 16:1-23 (Romans 16:1-23)

Christian salutations.

There remain now only salutations and conclusions. But the same courteous love shall be manifested to the end. Nowhere do the ethics of the new life come out more delicately than in these trivialities, as some would deem them, of epistolary correspondence. They are as the fragrance of the rose.

I. First, the letter-bearer is commended to their care. "Phoebe our sister, who is a servant of the Church." The mere sisterhood in Christ should be enough, but she was one in honour, the honour that comes of loving service, being a "deaconess" of the Church. How many offices of mercy could be filled then, as now, by the ministrations of gentle women! Some such office she fulfilled—she had been "a succourer of many." Nay, even of Paul also, perhaps in some illness. Surely here was an additional reason why they should receive her, and assist her in whatsoever matter she might have need of them.

II. Next, many Christians at Rome whom he knew are saluted by name—such doubtless as had removed thither from scenes of his former work, and through some of whom, perhaps, the gospel had first been made known at Rome: Prisca and Aquila, those earnest workers, through whom also, in some great peril, his life had been spared at the peril of their own; Epaenetus the beloved; Mary, who in some way had wrought much for them; Andronicus and Junias, kinsmen, who had also shared his bonds, and were earlier than himself in the faith of Christ; Ampliatus the beloved in Christ; Urbanus the fellow-worker, and Stachys the beloved; Apelles, whose Christian faith had been sorely tested, but who had come forth approved from the fire; the household of Aristobulus, who himself perchance was not in Christ; Herodion, a kinsman; those of the household of Narcissus who were in the Lord; Tryphaena and Tryphosa, and Persis the beloved, earnest workers in Christ; Rufus the elect, and his mother, who had also acted a mother's part to Paul; Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas, and the brethren among whom they worked; Philologus and Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas, and all the saints with them. And also, to those whom he knew not, but who were in Christ, as well as to those mentioned, whom he knew, he would have the salutation given: "Salute one another." And not on his behalf alone, but on behalf of all amongst whom he had preached Christ, and who, knowing his intent to visit Rome, had charged him with their love.

III. Yet, again, there are special ones who join him more formally in these salutings: Timothy, his fellow-worker, joined expressly with him in some Epistles (see 1 and 2 Thessalonians, 2 Corinthians, Colossians, Philippians, Philemon), but not in this, an authoritative exposition of the gospel, for which he, under Christ, must be alone responsible; Lucius, Jason, and Sosipater, kinsmen; Tertius, the writer, suffered, by Paul's exquisite delicacy, to give his salutation in his own name; Gains, the host of the Church; Erastus the treasurer; and brother Quartus.

It was done. The interchange of love was made. An illustration was given of that like-mindedness of love which he wished to see characterize the Churches of God. It only remained now that he should commend them to the grace of God.—T.F.L.

- The Pulpit Commentary

Romans 16:1-2 (Romans 16:1-2)

A Christian commendation.

It is an honour and a help to receive an introduction from one high in authority. Men of exalted station incur a serious responsibility in the matter of granting or withholding letters of recommendation. The Apostle Paul had known what it was to be treated with scant courtesy by the Church at Jerusalem, until he was warmly taken by the hand by Barnabas. Doubtless this remembrance quickened his desire to support and shield others in a similar position. How strongly he advocates the cause of Phoebe!

I. CLAIMS TO THE REGARD OF A CHURCH .

1. As a fellow-believer, a "sister" in Christ. To the instinctive sympathy which nature fosters, grace adds a further reason in the reminder of the one communion to which all belong who have professed loyalty to the one Lord. "Work good toward all men, and especially toward them that are of the household of faith." This mark of distinction is of necessity more visible where the surroundings are not even nominally Christian, and where a confession of faith in the new doctrine is a signal for tribulation and persecution.

2. As an officer of a sister Church. She was a deaconess, a servant of the Church, set apart for special ministration to the female portion of the community. " Render honour to whom honour is due." Office is prima facie an indication of worth, of high estimation by the electing body. There are ranks and orders in the heavenly hierarchy, as on earth.

3. As one in need of hospitable succorer. Need is itself an argument for attention and aid. Other things being equal, the call of the necessitous is paramount. The prosperous can manage well enough, whereas the situation of the distressed is an opportunity for benevolence. Phoebe's errand to Rome implied difficulty and insufficiency, whether she sought redress in an imperial court of law, or the discovery of some lost relations, or the pursuit of some handicraft, or surgical assistance.

4. As having herself contributed to the relief of the suffering. This is the lex talionis in its benignant form. Who is such a proper recipient of charity as the man who has done good according to his means? With the merciful does God show himself merciful. "Give, and it shall be given unto you." The idle vagabonds are not the deserving poor. Charity organization can alone bestow alms without pauperizing.

5. As having ministered to the writer. Though Phoebe's privilege of tending the apostle in one of his sicknesses was also a duty, the grateful invalid by no means forgets her services. What is done to ourselves strikes us more forcibly than the aid we witness rendered to our neighbours. It is like a lantern whose rays are turned full upon our face; we perceive its brightness. Hence the impulse to Christian devotedness felt when with individual consciousness of indebtedness to Christ we say, not only, "He died to save sinners," but also, "He loved me, and gave himself for me."

II. THE RECEPTION BEFITTING THE CHURCH . This is an illustration of the general maxim insisted on in Romans 15:7 .

1. A hearty welcome beseems the saints. Reserve and coldness melt away under the inspiring beams of kinship to the Saviour. The deeps of apathy are for ever broken up by the entrance of Christ into the heart. To receive a fellow-member "in the Lord" is to display some of the love and tenderness which Christ manifested towards his disciples. It is quite incompatible with that frigid etiquette which suspects new-comers, and resents as vulgar every outward token of emotion.

2. To render aid to the whole body of Christ is an essential part of every Church's functions. A Church exists, not for its own aggrandizement and glorification, but as an instrument for strengthening and enlarging the one kingdom of Christ. And every power at its command must be utilized as the very law of its life. Where a community or an individual wraps itself up in seclusion, indifferent to the welfare of others, there the process of decay and death has begun. And it is not in the mass, but by single persons, that the world is regenerated and service rendered. The recognition of the real brotherhood of Christians will usher in millennial days. Affection is the central fire of sainthood, burning up what is mean and selfish, and glowing like a coal from the altar of him whose incarnate love is our clearest revelation of Deity.

3. That is poor admiration of an apostle which is content with a grudging compliance with his bidding. Here was a chance presented to the Roman Christians at once to be generous to a visitor, and to fill the apostle's heart with thankfulness. And we today do best mark our reverence for apostolic authority and for the Master whose instructions are thus communicated by a whole-hearted endeavour to carry out the principles of New Testament liberality and beneficence. They have good security who lend unto the Lord.

4. To honour woman for her place and work is a sign of high civilization. It may not be true that only Christianity has treated woman with befitting dignity, but it is certain that Christ paid her signal respect, and that she has been foremost in the acceptance and promulgation of the faith. The prominence of woman in the primitive Church was succeeded by somewhat of obscurity and depreciation; but the Christian idea has again triumphed, and woman's special mission to soothe the aching head, and succour the weary, and to minister to distress as an angel of God, was never so fully discerned and so warmly appraised as now.

"Rise! woman, rise

To thy peculiar and best altitudes

Of doing good and of enduring ill—

Of comforting for ill, and teaching good,

And reconciling all that ill and good

Unto the patience of a constant hope."

Female labour in schools and missions affords the brightest prospects of evangelizing the world.—S.R.A.

- The Pulpit Commentary

Romans 16:1-27 (Romans 16:1-27)

Salutations and benedictions.

The programme being sketched, the apostle now proceeds to the salutations and benedictions with which his Epistles usually end. And here notice—

I. THE DISTINGUISHED PLACE OCCUPIED IN THE PRIMITIVE CHURCH BY WOMEN . There are no less than nine women specially referred to in this list, and all are active in the Church. Some were deaconesses; for instance, Phoebe, Mary, Tryphena and Tryphosa, and Persis. Oriental society separates the sexes in a way we do not in the West; hence the need of such officials there, and in zenana mission work still. Why should they not exist? Many a work which the Church should undertake can be better done by women than by men. But notice briefly:

1. Phoebe . She was a deaconess of Cenchrea, the port of Corinth. It was she who carried the precious Epistle to Rome. Some business led her thither. She is the bearer of the finest Epistle ever written to a Christian Church, and in it she has a magnificent introduction.

2. Prisca. Called Priscilla, and mentioned before her husband Aquila. Perhaps she was the better Christian. At all events, they had a "Church in their house." They had been very kind to the apostle, and had prosecuted with him their tent-making trade.

3. Tryphena and Tryphosa. Their names suggest voluptuous living—but they had been transformed by grace into hard workers (cf. Godet, in loc. ) .

4. Persis. Likely an aged deaconess. Her work is over. She had done much—had doubtless done what she could, and did not need to go to her work in company, like the preceding pair, but could face it alone.

5. Mother of Rufus. She seems to have been the widow of Simon the Cyrenian, as Mark 15:21 suggests. Paul had likely lodged with them when in Jerusalem, and received maternal sympathy from the good lady. Hence he speaks of her as his mother too.

II. NOTICE THE PARTICULAR KNOWLEDGE PAUL POSSESSES OF THE MEMBERS OF THE CHURCH IN ROME . This long list is a very particular one, and shows how the apostle has them all at his fingers' ends. He seems to have had that very enviable faculty for remembering names. And his particularity in the matter was from the love he bore them, as references in the words used over and over suggest.

III. THE SALUTATION WITH THE KISS OF HOLINESS . The arrangement was men kissed men, and women women, as is the Oriental fashion. It indicated a deeper interest in one another's welfare than we are inclined for in the West.

IV. THE ADVICE TO AVOID TROUBLES OF THE CHURCH . ( Mark 15:17-20 .) Prudence was necessary in the doing of good and a desire to avoid all pugnacity. On peaceful lines they might expect the victory over the evil one.

V. PAUL 'S FELLOW - WORKERS AT CORINTH SEND GREETINGS TO THE CHURCH AT ROME . ( Mark 15:21-23 .) The apostle had made good way at Corinth, from the greetings he was here enabled to send.

VI. THE DOXOLOGY . ( Mark 15:24-27 .) He carries his praise and hope upwards, and lays all at the feet of God. So should it be always.—R.M.E.

- The Pulpit Commentary